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Calcium Carbonate

Calcium Carbonate
Calcium Carbonate
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Product Code : CC 01
Product Description
Define CC and  PCC — Nano Calcium Carbonate and Precipitated Calcium Carbonate

PCC (Precipitated Calcium Carbonate) is a Calcium Carbonate in its purified, synthetic or refined form. The chemical formula of PCC is similar to other Calcium Carbonates, such as limestone,  chalk and marble. Three varying calcium carbonate minerals are created by arranging carbon, oxygen and calcium atoms in three different ways. Hexagonal form, acknowledged as Calcite is the most common arrangement for ground and precipitated calcium carbonates. Scalenohedral, prismatic and rhombohedra are several calcite crystal forms. Aragonite is the less common arrangement, which has discrete or clustered needle orthorhombic crystal structure. Vaterite calcium carbonate mineral is rare and unstable.

Calcium Carbonates that comprises PCC are non-toxic in nature. Calcium Carbonate is affirmed to be GRAS by the Food and Drug Administration of USA. Calcium Carbonate is considered safe. A highly pure PCC can be used as an indirect additive in paper products, a pharmaceutical, direct food additive. PCCs are used in aforementioned applications all across the world, after being approved and accepted. The regulations that cover the use of PCCs in health-related products are mentioned in the Contact Us link. A Material Safety Data Sheet can be downloaded from the MSDS link, which covers Specialty Minerals Inc.'s PCC Product.

When Did Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Production Begin?

PCCs are produced for commercial purposes, since 1841. An English company, John E. Sturge Ltd. started manufacturing PCC. Precipitated chalk was produced by treating the residuary calcium chloride from their potassium chlorate and manufacturing it with soda ash and carbon dioxide. A new factory was established in Birmingham in the year 1898, where PCCs were produced by the milk of lime process. That process is a part of the Performance Minerals Group of SMI.

The PCC production in U.S. began in 1938, when the C.K. Williams Company in Massachusetts experimented using limestone from their adjoining mine to make PCC. Pfizer in the year 1962 acquired this plant, which became part of the Performance Minerals Group of SMI. A parent company, Minerals Technologies Inc. was formed in 1992.

Making of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC)

The milk of lime process, which involves direct carbonation of hydrated lime is used in the manufacturing of PCC. This process has a simple concept:
  • Crush the mined, highly pure calcium carbonate into small particle size for processing- powder or small stones.
  • Make the crushed particles absolutely free from impurities and then heat them up in a furnace to 1850° F.
  • This heating process will separate calcium carbonate and form lime (CaO) gas and carbon  dioxide (CO2).
  • The carbon dioxide can be re-used. CaCO3 + Heat → CaO + CO2 ↑
  • Calcium hydroxide (hydrated  slake or lime) can be made by putting lime into water. CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2.
  • All impurities from the slaked lime are removed.
  • Slaked lime is then blended with the acquired carbon dioxide. It results in reformation of calcium carbonate, as it is unsolvable in water, precipitates out. Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 ↓ + H2O.
  • All impurities and grit from the PCC slurry are removed.
  • PCC for a latex paint plant or paper mill can be used in the form of lower solids slurry or processed into solids level. Before shipment or transfer, they are tested. In order use dry PCC, the slurry is dried, milled, de-watered, tested and packaged.
On the lab scale, this is an easy process. But, it is a great deal of process technology and process control for making PC on a large scale for commercial purposes, that demand right size, shape, surface area, uniformity and surface chemistry. The PCC technology followed make excellent quality and consistent PCCs.

Materials Requires in Making of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC)

Limestone is a high purity calcium carbonate rock, which is used in the making of PCC. Quality limestone from our mines is used for PCC products. Limestone is often derived from the ocean floor, in which skeletons were being laid down and a thick layer of prehistoric sea shells. The shells and skeletons contain large amount of calcium carbonate. Under high pressure and temperature, the limestone deposit for five hundred million years changes to a coarsely crystallized limestone. An oxidation process called diagenesis is carried out to remove the organic matter in the deposit. Continuation if this geological process for a longer time results in the conversion of the crystals into very small and form marble, a hard form of calcium carbonate. If time, pressure and temperature are not accurate, then the seabed only partly metamorphoses. It results in soft chalk such as the formation of Whilte Cliffs of Dover in England. One can see the remnants of skeletons and shells in the chalk.  

Why Is All That Processing Done?

There are two main reasons behind this processing. The first is that the purification of calcium carbonate is done at various points in the PCC process. Rock which is not calcium carbonate is removed from the deposit. There are impurities in every limestone deposit, which can be feldspar, heavy metals and other silicaceous minerals. Secondly, PCC process enables to grow crystals of several shapes. The formed particle is dictated  by therate of carbon dioxide addition,  temperature, control of reaction time, pressure, agitation as well as post-crystallization processing. The prisms, cubes, clustered needles and rhombohedrons have several physical properties, for instance oil absorption, powder density and surface area that provide them excellent performance in several usage areas where ground calcium carbonate does not have good performance.

The precipitation process enables the growth of finest particles, down to hundredths of a micron or nanometers-much finer than acquired by crushing the limestone rock. The ultrafine nano PCCs are used in applications that demand excellent performance.

What Makes Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Different?

PCC in different shapes acts as a functional additive in pharmaceuticals, adhesives, rubber, sealants, plastics, inks, paper, nutritional supplements, etc. PCC can be selected by the formulator based on the shape and physical properties, which ensures excellent performance in the end use. In the PCC process, products can be developed with small sizes with high surface areas, high oil absorption, or/and with varying powder bulk density, from super high powder to ultra low densities.

Why Are PCCs Coated?

PCCs are coated with 1 to 3% fatty acid, such as organic materials or stearic acid to be used in non-aqueous systems. The coating increases the PCC's dispersibility in the solvent or polymer, and its compatibility with the solvent or polymer, which results in maximizing the performance and efficiency of the PCC. The type of coating is selected based in the desired performance and the type of polymer to be used in the PCC. Solubility and polarity constants together form different polymers, different organics are selected to ensure the best balance of properties and the compatibility.

How Does PCC Differ From Ground Calcium Carbonate (GCC)?

PCC has similar chemical composition to GCC. The purity of PCC is much purer than the limestone from which it is produced. It is lower in silica and lead. The size and shape of PCC are different from that of GCC.

Under high magnification, GCC becomes irregularly rhombohedral in shape. The crystal shape of PCC is based on the product, ehile the particles are uniform and regular. The particle sizes dispersion in a GCC is much broader in comparison to PCC of the same size as there are many large and small particles than in a PCC.

In comparison to the GCC, the lower top size of a PCC provides impact resistant property in plastics. High oil absorption is generated by the distribution of smaller particle size, which is useful in certain applications.

Specialty Minerals Precipitated Calcium Carbonates

We manufacture PCCs, with an output of over 4 million tons each year. The PCC products are provided for paper, paperboard filling and coating, which include Megafil®, Velacarb® and Opacarb® precipitated calcium carbonates. The series of five CalEssence® ultra low lead PCCs and eight  ViCALity® USP/FCC precipitated calcium carbonates are developed for food, personal care products, pharmaceutical products and nutritional supplements. We make Calopake EP PCC and Five SturcalTM healthcare grades.

Water-based and polymeric industrial products use Albacar®, Albaglos®, Super-Pflex®, and Tuffgard® Precipitated Calcium Carbonates, together with the Ultra-Pflex®, Multifex-MM®,  nano PCCs and a series of Thixo-Carb® Precipitated Calcium Carbonate from U.S. The Calofort® nano PCCs and Calopake® PCC are from our production plant.

Packaging & Delivery:

Packaging Details : 10Kg/25kg Plastic woven bag
Delivery Detail      :    10 To 15 days

Why Us?

Ours is an ISO 9001:2008 certified company that offers high quality products, which are prior to shipping examined by a team of experts in a modern quality checking

Export Market:
  • Singapore
  • Iran
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • India
  • Germany
  • Malaysia
  • Brazil
  • South Korea
  • Australia
  • USA
  • Belgium
  • Taiwan
  • Indonesia


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